A Tunable Microwave Frequency Alternating Current Scanning Tunneling Microscope

S. J. Stranick and P. S. Weiss*

Review of Scientific Instruments 65, 918 (1994).

By modulating the scanning tunneling microscope junction bias voltage at microwave frequencies, imaging and spectroscopy of insulating surfaces has become possible. In order to explore the spectroscopic capabilities of this instrument, we have developed a tunable microwave frequency alternating current scanning tunneling microscope. We combine the reliable beetle-style sample approach with coaxial sample and tip contacts. This provides us with a stable microwave-frequency-compatible scanning tunneling microscope. This alternating current scanning tunneling microscope design is compatible with ultrahigh vacuum and low temperature operation.