G. E. McGuire,
P. S. Weiss, J. G. Kushmerick, J. A. Johnson, S. J. Simko, R. J. Nemanich, N. R. Parikh, and D. R. Chopra
Analytical Chemistry 69, (1997), in press.
Abstract of Scanning Probe Microscopy Section
A review of proximal probe techniques and applications is presented. The articles included in this review are predominantly from the years 1995 and 1996, the time since the last Analytical Chemistry review (Abstract). Proximal probes have become well established as surface characterization tools over the 16 years since the initial development of the scanning tunneling microscope (STM). As proximal probe techniques have matured and become more accessible the volume of literature has skyrocketed. Due to the large volume of scanning probe microscope (SPM) literature, this review attempts to highlight important advances in the field as opposed to providing a complete bibliography. Specifically, reports solely on surface topography and structural determinations, as well as papers on superconducting substrates are not included. Since the Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B published the complete proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Scanning Tunneling Microscopy/Spectroscopy and Related Techniques: papers from that conference will be excluded from this review. Means of chemical identification and differentiation remain paramount issues in developing these instruments as analytical tools. While some progress on this front has been made, as described below, no general methods of identification have yet been demonstrated.